The 2017 electrical energy storage roadmap has applied a wider battery system perspective and considers cell materials, supporting battery systems and manufacturing and life cycle challenges. Using the APC’s Electrical Energy Spoke based at the University of Warwick, the new roadmap has been built using a targets-based approach, informed by consensus amongst a wide range of industry and academic experts with key targets for cost, energy and power density. The roadmap demonstrates that 2025 targets can be met using evolution of current lithium ion technology, but there is limited room for improvement beyond then.
The 2017 roadmap electric machine recognises that e-machine development is broadly focussed on both increasing technical performance and reducing cost in mass market products. Using the APC’s Electric Machine Spoke based at Newcastle University, the new roadmap has been built using a targets-based approach, informed by consensus amongst a wide range of industry and academic experts with key targets for cost and power density. More emphasis has been placed on materials and manufacturing processes reflecting their importance in delivering cost competitive and sustainable solutions. A number of technology evolutions occur after 2025 which reflects the immaturity of the current e-machine automotive mass market and the need for targeted R&D on future applications. The new roadmap also reflects greater alignment with the power electronics roadmap, recognising that future product developments will lead to greater compatibility and integration.
The 2017 power electronics roadmap was developed separately from the electric machine roadmap resulting in greater granularity with a focus on a broader set of power electronics challenges. Using the APC’s Power Electronics Spoke based at the University of Nottingham, the new roadmap has been built using a targets-based approach, informed by consensus amongst a wide range of industry and academic experts with key targets for cost and power density. Step changes in the 2035 performance targets reflect the opportunities that can be realised through the optimisation and integration of wide and ultra-wide band gap semiconductors currently in development. The new roadmap also provides a more detailed focus on supporting technologies and materials (and their evolution) as earlier stage R&D is realised into future applications.
The 2017 thermal propulsions system roadmap keeps the thermal and system efficiency distinction made in the 2013 internal combustion roadmap but recognises that light duty and heavy duty base engines may take different approaches. Using the APC’s Thermal Efficiency and System Efficiency Spokes based at the University of Brighton and Bath respectively, the new roadmap has introduced stretched targets for future light and heavy duty systems, focussing on wider emissions spectrum in order to maintain market relevance and competitiveness. The new roadmap also reflects that the internal combustion engine is part of a system, and its performance and compliance with regulation is dependent on the integration of pre and post combustion sub-systems. Similar to the 2013 roadmap, alternative operational cycles through alternative engine designs and control systems are highlighted in the roadmap but with a stronger recognition of the integration of transmissions and energy recovery devices to further enhance hybrid system performance.
The 2017 lightweight roadmap has built upon the 2013 roadmap with a wide range of industry and academic experts participating in the update process. The targets reflect the different challenges in conventional and xEV over the short term and how greater levels of autonomy may impact designs over the longer term. The new roadmap reflects an acceleration to lower emissions and zero emission solutions, requiring lighter weight to offset additionality in conventional powertrain systems and to increase the range or reduce mass of battery required in xEVs. The 2017 roadmap focusses on design, materials and manufacturing weight saving themes, acknowledging all three have an equally important role to play in supporting weight optimised vehicle systems.